Internal scc patchset buffer for QBE
Log | Files | Refs | README | LICENSE

commit c5cd65261e05029889450ca27050785504164853
parent 99fea1e21174b18ccbd947787bea91140fd802e8
Author: Quentin Carbonneaux <quentin@c9x.me>
Date:   Fri, 16 Dec 2022 16:56:40 +0100

update documentation

Mdoc/il.txt | 114+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------------
1 file changed, 97 insertions(+), 17 deletions(-)

diff --git a/doc/il.txt b/doc/il.txt @@ -42,8 +42,8 @@ The intermediate language (IL) is a higher-level language than the machine's assembly language. It smoothes most of the irregularities of the underlying hardware and allows an infinite number of temporaries to be used. -This higher abstraction level allows frontend programmers -to focus on language design issues. +This higher abstraction level lets frontend programmers +focus on language design issues. ~ Input Files ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ @@ -127,8 +127,8 @@ exactly one of two consecutive tokens is a symbol (for example ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ `bnf - BASETY := 'w' | 'l' | 's' | 'd' # Base types - EXTTY := BASETY | 'b' | 'h' # Extended types + BASETY := 'w' | 'l' | 's' | 'd' # Base types + EXTTY := BASETY | 'b' | 'h' # Extended types The IL makes minimal use of types. By design, the types used are restricted to what is necessary for unambiguous @@ -142,16 +142,16 @@ and `d` (double), they stand respectively for 32-bit and There are no pointer types available; pointers are typed by an integer type sufficiently wide to represent all memory addresses (e.g., `l` on 64-bit architectures). Temporaries -in the IL can only have a basic type. +in the IL can only have a base type. Extended types contain base types plus `b` (byte) and `h` (half word), respectively for 8-bit and 16-bit integers. They are used in <@ Aggregate Types> and <@ Data> definitions. For C interfacing, the IL also provides user-defined aggregate -types. The syntax used to designate them is `:foo`. Details -about their definition are given in the <@ Aggregate Types > -section. +types as well as signed and unsigned variants of the sub-word +extended types. Read more about these types in the +<@ Aggregate Types > and <@ Functions > sections. ~ Subtyping ~~~~~~~~~~~ @@ -178,10 +178,15 @@ by zero-extension, or by sign-extension. | 'd_' FP # Double-precision float | $IDENT # Global symbol -Throughout the IL, constants are specified with a unified -syntax and semantics. Constants are immediates, meaning -that they can be used directly in instructions; there is -no need for a "load constant" instruction. + DYNCONST := + CONST + | 'thread' $IDENT # Thread-local symbol + +Constants come in two kinds: compile-time constants and +dynamic constants. Dynamic constants include compile-time +constants and other symbol variants that are only known at +program-load time or execution time. Consequently, dynamic +constants can only occur in function bodies. The representation of integers is two's complement. Floating-point numbers are represented using the @@ -212,12 +217,17 @@ Global symbols can also be used directly as constants; they will be resolved and turned into actual numeric constants by the linker. +When the `thread` keyword prefixes a symbol name, the +symbol's numeric value is resolved at runtime in the +thread-local storage. + - 4. Linkage ------------ `bnf LINKAGE := 'export' [NL] + | 'thread' [NL] | 'section' SECNAME [NL] | 'section' SECNAME SECFLAGS [NL] @@ -233,6 +243,15 @@ visible outside the current file's scope. If absent, the symbol can only be referred to locally. Functions compiled by QBE and called from C need to be exported. +The `thread` linkage flag can only qualify data +definitions. It mandates that the object defined is +stored in thread-local storage. Each time a runtime +thread starts, the supporting platform runtime is in +charge of making a new copy of the object for the +fresh thread. Objects in thread-local storage must +be accessed using the `thread $IDENT` syntax, as +specified in the <@ Constants > section. + A `section` flag can be specified to tell the linker to put the defined item in a certain section. The use of the section flag is platform dependent and we refer the @@ -381,7 +400,8 @@ Here are various examples of data definitions. | 'env' %IDENT # Environment parameter (first) | '...' # Variadic marker (last) - ABITY := BASETY | :IDENT + SUBWTY := 'sb' | 'ub' | 'sh' | 'uh' # Sub-word types + ABITY := BASETY | SUBWTY | :IDENT Function definitions contain the actual code to emit in the compiled file. They define a global symbol that @@ -391,7 +411,7 @@ can be used in `call` instructions or stored in memory. The type given right before the function name is the return type of the function. All return values of this function must have this return type. If the return -type is missing, the function cannot return any value. +type is missing, the function must not return any value. The parameter list is a comma separated list of temporary names prefixed by types. The types are used @@ -409,6 +429,26 @@ member of the struct. ret %val } +If a function accepts or returns values that are smaller +than a word, such as `signed char` or `unsigned short` in C, +one of the sub-word type must be used. The sub-word types +`sb`, `ub`, `sh`, and `uh` stand, respectively, for signed +and unsigned 8-bit values, and signed and unsigned 16-bit +values. Parameters associated with a sub-word type of bit +width N only have their N least significant bits set and +have base type `w`. For example, the function + + function w $addbyte(w %a, sb %b) { + @start + %bw =w extsb %b + %val =w add %a, %bw + ret %val + } + +needs to sign-extend its second argument before the +addition. Dually, return values with sub-word types do +not need to be sign or zero extended. + If the parameter list ends with `...`, the function is a variadic function: it can accept a variable number of arguments. To access the extra arguments provided by @@ -439,7 +479,7 @@ there is no need for function declarations: a function can be referenced before its definition. Similarly, functions from other modules can be used without previous declaration. All the type information -is provided in the call instructions. +necessary to compile a call is in the instruction itself. The syntax and semantics for the body of functions are described in the <@ Control > section. @@ -498,6 +538,7 @@ to the loop block. 'jmp' @IDENT # Unconditional | 'jnz' VAL, @IDENT, @IDENT # Conditional | 'ret' [VAL] # Return + | 'hlt' # Termination A jump instruction ends every block and transfers the control to another program location. The target of @@ -525,6 +566,14 @@ the following list. prototype. If the function prototype does not specify a return type, no return value can be used. + 4. Program termination. + + Terminates the execution of the program with a + target-dependent error. This instruction can be used + when it is expected that the execution never reaches + the end of the block it closes; for example, after + having called a function such as `exit()`. + - 7. Instructions ----------------- @@ -681,7 +730,27 @@ towards zero. temporaries can be used directly instead, because it is illegal to take the address of a variable. -The following example makes use some of the memory + * Blits. + + * `blit` -- `(m,m,w)` + + The blit instruction copies in-memory data from its + first address argument to its second address argument. + The third argument is the number of bytes to copy. The + source and destination spans are required to be either + non-overlapping, or fully overlapping (source address + identical to the destination address). The byte count + argument must be a nonnegative numeric constant; it + cannot be a temporary. + + One blit instruction may generate a number of + instructions proportional to its byte count argument, + consequently, it is recommended to keep this argument + relatively small. If large copies are necessary, it is + preferable that frontends generate calls to a supporting + `memcpy` function. + +The following example makes use of some of the memory instructions. Pointers are stored in long temporaries. %A0 =l alloc4 8 # stack allocate an array A of 2 words @@ -818,7 +887,8 @@ single-precision floating point number `%f` into `%rs`. | 'env' VAL # Environment argument (first) | '...' # Variadic marker - ABITY := BASETY | :IDENT + SUBWTY := 'sb' | 'ub' | 'sh' | 'uh' # Sub-word types + ABITY := BASETY | SUBWTY | :IDENT The call instruction is special in several ways. It is not a three-address instruction and requires the type of all @@ -833,6 +903,14 @@ a pointer to a memory location holding the value. This is because aggregate types are not first-class citizens of the IL. +Sub-word types are used for arguments and return values +of width less than a word. Details on these types are +presented in the <@ Functions > section. Arguments with +sub-word types need not be sign or zero extended according +to their type. Calls with a sub-word return type define +a temporary of base type `w` with its most significant bits +unspecified. + Unless the called function does not return a value, a return temporary must be specified, even if it is never used afterwards. @@ -989,6 +1067,7 @@ instructions unless you know exactly what you are doing. * `alloc16` * `alloc4` * `alloc8` + * `blit` * `loadd` * `loadl` * `loads` @@ -1084,6 +1163,7 @@ instructions unless you know exactly what you are doing. * <@ Jumps >: + * `hlt` * `jmp` * `jnz` * `ret`